Tuesday, September 13, 2016


Negative Campaigning

[Cicero], Rhetorica ad Herennium 1.5 (tr. Harry Caplan):
From the discussion of the person of our adversaries we shall secure goodwill by bringing them into hatred, unpopularity, or contempt.

We shall force hatred upon them by adducing some base, highhanded, treacherous, cruel, impudent, malicious, or shameful act of theirs.

We shall make our adversaries unpopular by setting forth their violent behaviour, their dominance, factiousness, wealth, lack of self-restraint, high birth, clients, hospitality, club allegiance, or marriage alliances, and by making clear that they rely more upon these supports than upon the truth.

We shall bring our adversaries into contempt by presenting their idleness, cowardice, sloth, and luxurious habits.

ab adversariorum persona benivolentia captabitur si eos in odium, in invidiam, in contemptionem adducemus.

in odium rapiemus si quid eorum spurce, superbe, perfidiose, crudeliter, confidenter, malitiose, flagitiose factum proferemus.

in invidiam trahemus si vim, si potentiam, si factionem, divitias, incontinentiam, nobilitatem, clientelas, hospitium, sodalitatem, adfinitates adversariorum proferemus, et his adiumentis magis quam veritati eos confidere aperiemus.

in contemptionem adducemus si inertiam, ignaviam, desidiam, luxuriam adversariorum proferemus.

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